Central European Journal of Politics
Central European Journal of Politics, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2020)
Obsah / Content
Ahmad Shah Azami: The Post-9/11 US-Led State-Building in Afghanistan
Abstract: Following the fall of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan in 2001, the US shed much blood and spent enormous funds in the country as part of its “War on Terror” as well as for reconstruction and institution-building there. As the US intervention in Afghanistan mainly focused on dismantling Al-Qaeda and toppling the Taliban regime, it also aimed at establishing a functioning state. Along the way, US policy makers also made a number of mistakes which undermined the US-led international coalition’s own stated mission and goals. Thus, after spending around two decades in Afghanistan, the US failed to fully achieve its desired objectives. Based on a literature review, this paper discusses the reasons why the US-led state-building efforts in Afghanistan achieved limited success. It aims to reveal the US’ miscalculations and mistakes in Afghanistan from the perspective of three major components of state-building, i.e. Security and Peace; Democratization; and Reconstruction & Economic Development.
Keywords: State-building, United States, Afghanistan, security, reconstruction, democratization
How to cite: Azami, A. S. 2020. “The Post-9/11 US-Led State-Building in Afghanistan.” Central European Journal of Politics 6 (1): 1–25.
Lucia Husenicová: The DPRK Nuclear Programme as a Tool of Foreign and Security Policy
Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the security situation of Korean peninsula has been defined mainly by the development of the nuclear and missile programme by North Korea – DPRK. The end of the Cold War changed the security situation of North Korea. With the dissolution of the Socialist bloc, the country lost legitimacy, mainly externally, and its political leadership decided to pursue the militarization of its nuclear programme. The development of the nuclear programme has undergone several phases and experienced a significant boost since the third leader, Kim Jong-un, took power in 2011. The country has tested new types of nuclear devices as well as missiles. These actions did not go unanswered and today, North Korea is facing severe UN sanctions as well as unilateral sanctions by many countries. The aim of the study is to show how North Korea instrumentalises its nuclear and missile programme for different political purposes. Externally they provide for the regime’s security through the deterrence strategy and at the same time they are used as a bargaining chip in negotiations, mainly with the U.S. Internally, the programmes serve as a sign of the young leader’s ability to guarantee security and independence for the country. The study builds on theoretical concepts that explain why states seek to build nuclear weapons. Two dominant reasons are identified: security reasons and prestige represent one and character of political regime and legitimacy represent the second reason. The study specifically analyses the behaviour of North Korea in the recent crisis which started in 2017. The crisis was followed by a diplomatic charm offensive initiated by the North Korean leader. The study concludes that the North Korean political elite is using its nuclear and missile programmes successfully to achieve its goals, even though sometimes the success is just partial.
Keywords: North Korea, nuclear program, missile crisis, diplomacy, Kim Jong-un, nuclear deterrence, compellence
How to cite: Husenicová, L. 2020. “The DPRK Nuclear Programme as a Tool of Foreign and Security Policy.” Central European Journal of Politics 6 (1): 26–50.
Abstract: It has been approximately thirty years since the Velvet Revolution ended the domination of the Communist Party and the forced orientation of Czechoslovakia to the USSR. The past political representation faced the task of setting a new foreign policy orientation. One of the possibilities, which soon turned out to be preferred, was to establish close cooperation with the European Communities, and the so-called return to Europe eventually led to accession to the European Union. Most political parties and movements represented in the parliament supported this step although, as the analysis of contemporary discourse reveals, their arguments were often different. However, there were also entities, in particular the Association for the Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, which explicitly expressed their objections to European integration. Still, the analysis of Association for the Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia, for example, shows that the positions within these parties may not have always been consistent. This article, therefore, seeks to analyse the European integration discourse of the major political actors from the Velvet Revolution to the 1998 elections. Specifically, it focuses on the Czech Social Democratic Party, the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People’s Party, the Civic Democratic Alliance, the Civic Democratic Party and the Association for the Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia.
Keywords: Czech political parties, European Union, European Communities, European integration, discourse
How to cite: Skulínek, M. 2020. “Evropská integrace v diskurzu českých politických stran v období let 1989 až 1998.” Central European Journal of Politics 6 (1): 51–86.
Abstract: The NATO–Russia relations are in the worst state since the end of the Cold War. Both parties are unable to forge a mutually benefiting relationship. Both rationalize their own conduct with various and often conflicting narratives, which further complicate the relationship itself. The study examines the NATO narrative of the NATO–Russia relations from 1991 to December 31, 2016, and compares the NATO narrative with NATO’s policies aimed towards Russia. The study conducts a qualitative content analysis using MAXQDA software. Based on the dataset researched, the study suggests that Russia’s discursive positioning in the NATO narrative shifted from key partner in the 1990s to strategic partner between 2004 and 2013 and following annexation of Crimea, Russia shifted to the role of an adversary and a threat to NATO’s mission. The study further suggests that the NATO narrative strategically highlighted or downplayed certain selected events and problems to steer Russia’s foreign policy behaviour. NATO’s proclamations or silence at times might have caused misunderstanding, deepened distrust, cemented prejudices and thus potentially contributed to the current crisis of the NATO–Russia relations.
Keywords: CAQDAS, NATO, Russia, NATO–Russia relations, strategic narrative
How to cite: Louženský, L. 2020. “NATO a Rusko: Od partnerství ke krizi.” Central European Journal of Politics 6 (1): 87–113.
RECENZE / REVIEWS
How to cite: Naxera, V. 2020. “Elena MANNOVÁ: Minulosť ako supermarket? Spôsoby reprezentácie a aktualizácie dejín Slovenska.” Central European Journal of Politics 6 (1): 114–116.
How to cite: Bláha, P. 2020. “Zuzana KUSÁ – Ladislav RABUŠIC (eds.): Odděleně spolu? Česko a Slovensko optikou vývoje hodnot po roce 1991.” Central European Journal of Politics 6 (1): 117–119.