Central European Journal of Politics
Central European Journal of Politics, Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
Obsah / Content
How to cite: Charvát, J. 2019. „Nové politické strany ve střední Evropě: úvod k monotematickému číslu.“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 1–5.
Beata Kosowska-Gąstoł – Katarzyna Sobolewska-Myślik: New parties in the Polish party system 2011–2018: The Palikot Movement, Kukiz’15 and the Modern Party of Ryszard Petru as genuinely new parties?
Abstract: The Polish party system has experienced several major changes since 1989. The last important change occurred in 2001, when two new parties were formed – the Law and Justice and the Civic Platform – which have since dominated the party competition in Poland and have been accused of almost completely blocking the system. However, since 2011, several new parties have emerged, claiming to represent a new quality in Polish politics. The subject of the analysis includes all those parties that entered the Polish parliament for the first time after the 2011 (the Palikot Movement) and 2015 elections (Kukiz’15, the Modern Party of Ryszard Petru). In order to assess their degree of novelty, the interval index of party congruence/novelty as proposed by Sikk and Köker is used. The parties chosen are analyzed in terms of their organization, leadership and candidate selection. Comparing these parties, we show the highest level of novelty in the case of the Modern Party, followed by Kukiz’15, with the Palikot Movement at the end. The other important conclusion concerns the phenomenon of bipolarity in Polish politics, which is related to the long-lasting rivalry between the Law and Justice and the Civic Platform parties, which prevents new parties from gaining political relevance. The emergence of three parties able to gain parliamentary seats shows that this bipolarity is not as ‘rigid’ as it may be perceived, hence new entrants into Polish politics are still possible.
Keywords: Poland, party system, new parties, The Palikot Movement, Kukiz’15, Modern Party of Ryszard Petru
How to cite: Kosowska-Gąstoł, B. – Sobolewska-Myślik, K. 2019. „New parties in the Polish party system 2011–2018: The Palikot Movement, Kukiz’15 and the Modern Party of Ryszard Petru as genuinely new parties?“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 6–29.
Matyáš Křížkovský: Tíživé dědictví nové politiky v Česku: Zelení jako případ neúspěšného morálního populismu [The burdensome legacy of new politics in Czechia: The Greens as a case of failed moral populism]
Abstract: This paper explores the ideology of the Czech Greens, especially the part that has been overlooked by previous research: the ideological background of green activists who took over the party in 2002 and transformed it into something more closely resembling the ideal type of their western counterparts. The empirical question here is how the structure of the Greens’ ideology developed until 2006, when the party achieved historic success in the parliamentary election (6.29%), and how this influenced the ensuing decision to participate in the right-wing conservative government led by the former principal enemy of the Greens, the Civic Democratic Party (ODS). The paper examines that question in a diachronic manner, using the theoretical framework of “New Politics”, on the one hand, and the morphological approach to ideologies, on the other. Four stages of ideological development between 1989 and 2006 are then introduced. While some authors have claimed that the technocratic elites of the former regime contributed to the development of contemporary “technocratic populism”, this paper shows that former dissent also contributed to the burdensome legacy of New Politics by contaminating it with “moral populism”. This influenced the ideological structure of the Greens at a critical stage of their development and steered them towards the model of “single-use” niche party in 2006.
Keywords: Czech Green Party, New Politics, Modular Ideology, Thin Ideology, Populism
How to cite: Křížkovský M. 2019. „The Burdensome Legacy of New Politics in Czechia: The Greens as a Case of Failed Moral Populism.“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 30–54.
Abstract: The crisis of “old” (traditional, established) political parties and the related rise of new party actors represents a fundamental phenomenon in the politics of European countries nowadays. The goal of the paper is to analyse the position, role and development of two traditional parties in the Slovak political arena, the Slovak National Party (SNS) and the Christian-Democratic Movement (KDH), in the context of the rise of new political parties. We inquire whether and how the ideological-programmatic profiles and positions of both entities in the political arena have changed in this respect. Are new political parties (and if so, which ones are) able to influence the ideological-programmatic change/continuity of, and to weaken/strengthen, the SNS and the KDH in Slovak politics? The character of the SNS and the KDH (their positions, roles, internal situations including intra-party conflicts) has changed several times in the past. Recently, however, this change has become more dynamic, and the processes and the phenomena we observe demonstrate that the rise of new political entities has brought about more profound change in both established parties. Importantly in this regard, there has been growing competition from new (or old-new) parties of similar orientation, making the replacement of SNS or KDH by another representative of the same ideological-programmatic orientation a real possibility.
Keywords: Slovakia, party system, new parties, Slovak National Party, Christian-Democratic Movement
How to cite: Hynčica, P. 2019. „Krize a kontinuita „starých“ a nástup nových politických stran na Slovensku.“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 55–70.
Adriana Vasiľková – Jarmila Androvičová: Príčiny nárastu podpory pravicového radikalizmu a extrémizmu na Slovensku: príklad politickej strany Kotleba–ĽSNS [Causes of increasing support of right-wing radicalism and extremism in Slovakia: Example of the political party Kotleba–ĽSNS]
Abstract: The crisis of traditional political parties, which has been intensively debated in recent years, is also relevant in Slovakia. The accompanying phenomenon of this crisis is the rise of various non-traditional political subjects, as well as the increasing popularity of radical and extremist political parties. In Slovakia, their main representative is the political party Kotleba – The People’s Party Our Slovakia (Kotleba–ĽSNS). The aim of the study is to analyse the causes of the increasing popularity of this party and the profile of its electorate. The study is based on theoretical and historical analysis of the core phenomena – radicalism, extremism and nationalism. It presents the idea that the core position of everyday mainstream nationalism in Slovak politics weakened the sensitivity of Slovak voters towards “enemy creating” strategies in politics, thus preparing the ground for the success of Kotleba–ĽSNS. It also discusses the ideological vs. protest background of Kotleba–ĽSNS voters.
Keywords: radicalism, extremism, political parties, crisis of democracy, voters´ behaviour, Kotleba-ĽSNS
How to cite: Vasiľková, A. – Androvičová, J. 2019. „Príčiny nárastu podpory pravicového radikalizmu a extrémizmu na Slovensku: príklad politickej strany Kotleba–ĽSNS.“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 71–99.
Abstract: Political parties established by businessmen brought many new facets to the party systems of countries across Europe. They introduced fresh faces, PR-oriented campaigns, privately sponsored budgets, and anti-establishment issues, evading the traditional ideological cleavages. In this paper, I look closely at the institutionalisation process of six entrepreneurial political parties. These parties successfully entered parliaments in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. I suggest that although the entrepreneurial origin presents an advantageous organisational model for passing the electoral threshold and gaining seats in the parliament, in order to root more permanently in the party system, it is beneficial for the party to partially evolve beyond this formative state, including having stable or gradually increasing membership and a developed branch structure, while maintaining strong leadership and loyal elites. This argument is demonstrated on the cases of ANO 2011, the Public Affairs party, OĽaNO, Freedom and Solidarity, We Are Family – Boris Kollár and the Palikot Movement.
Keywords: Central Europe, entrepreneurial parties, institutionalisation, political entrepreneurs, the Czech Republic, party system
How to cite: Brunnerová, O. 2019. „Not all political entrepreneurs are created equal: The institutionalisation of entrepreneurial parties in Central Europe.“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 100–124.
RECENZE / REVIEWS
How to cite: Vavřincová, N. 2019. „Jakub CHARVÁT – Petr, JUST: Krize politického stranictví a noví straničtí aktéři v české politice.“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 125–126.
How to cite: Baroch, M. 2019. „Lubomír KOPEČEK – Vít HLOUŠEK – Roman CHYTILEK – Petra SVAČINOVÁ (eds.): Já platím, já rozhoduji! Političtí podnikatelé a jejich strany.“ Central European Journal of Politics 5 (1): 127–132.